Scale is a critical part of how we develop applications in today’s world of infrastructure. Now, containers and container orchestration like Docker and Kubernetes make it easier to think about scale. One of the “magical” things about The potential of Kubernetes is fully realized when you have a sudden increase in load, your infrastructure scales up and grows to accommodate. How does this work? With Horizontal Pod Autoscaling, Kubernetes adds more pods when you have more load and drops them once things return to normal.
This article covers Horizontal Pod Autoscaling, what it is, and how to try it out with the Kubernetes guestbook example. By the end of this article, you will…
- Understand what Horizontal Pod Autoscaling (HPA) is
- Be able to create an HPA in Kubernetes
- Create an HPA for the Guestbook and watch it work with Siege
What is Horizontal Pod Autoscaling?
Horizontal Pod Autoscaling (HPA) is a Kubernetes API resource to dynamically grow an environment. To help simplify things, consider it in three pieces:
- Horizontal: Think of horizontal growth, i.e. adding more nodes to your available pool (unlike vertical, which would be adding more memory / CPU to your existing nodes)
- Pod: Your deployable units in Kubernetes
- Autoscaling: Automatically scaling out when needed
To help visualize it, imagine you have a Python Flask web server that reads and writes data to a Redis back-end. Your web server is the front-end for all of your incoming traffic. You run it with three pods in Kubernetes, with 512MB of RAM and 50m of CPU. Now, suddenly, BuzzFeed writes an article about your app, Kanye West name drops the app in a TV interview, and the president of the United States retweets a link to your site.
Now you have a serious problem on your hands, where your tiny application is overloaded. Three pods aren’t cutting it anymore. You get woken up at 3:00am to hastily adjust the number of replicas and rapidly scale your infrastructure. While you’re wondering how this happened, you also wonder… isn’t there an easier way? Could I have avoided this panicked, pre-dawn scaling crisis? Yes, there is! At least, somewhat.
Building to scale
By creating and managing your deployments with HPAs, your application grows horizontally to handle the load. As the CPU utilization rises, HPAs trigger the addition of more pods to scale automatically. Previously, you could create a Horizontal Pod Autoscaler that would begin scaling when cumulative CPU utilization was at 60%. You could also tell it to scale to a maximum of 500 pods, but no less than three. So then, when the Apocalypse of Viral Sharing happened to your web application, it could have grown dynamically.
If you want to dive deeper in the technical implementation of HPAs, you can read more in the Kubernetes documentation.
Create a Horizontal Pod Autoscaler
Now that you understand how a Horizontal Pod Autoscaler (HPA) is helpful, how do you create one? Like any other resource in Kubernetes, define HPAs in a YAML definition file. Here’s a template for getting started.
--- apiVersion: autoscaling/v1 kind: HorizontalPodAutoscaler metadata: name: my-app-hpa namespace: my-app-space labels: app: my-app tier: frontend spec: scaleTargetRef: apiVersion: apps/v1beta1 kind: Deployment name: my-app-deployment minReplicas: 2 maxReplicas: 20 targetCPUUtilizationPercentage: 60
This is the minimal spec you need to deploy an HPA. It’s not that different from other Kubernetes resources you may have seen.
Explaining the configuration
Let’s look at what some of the specific lines are.
spec.scaleTargetRef.name: Name of resource to scale (e.g. name of a deployment)
spec.minReplicas: Minimum number of replicas running when CPU use is minimal
spec.maxReplicas: Maximum number of replicas running when CPU use peaks
spec.targetCPUUtilizationPercentage: Percentage threshold when HPA begins scaling out pods
When starting out for the first time, tweak these values based on the amount of traffic you expect to receive or what your budget is. Load testing your application is one way to see the HPAs do their job.
Obliterating the Guestbook
But this guide wouldn’t be complete without a live demo to try. You can create one with an existing application and put it to the test. This section assumes you have a running Guestbook application in your Kubernetes environment. As a quick refresh, the Guestbook is a three-part application:
- PHP web application for writing messages into a virtual guestbook
- Master Redis node for writing new messages from web page
- Slave Redis nodes for reading the data into web page
We’ll add an HPA as a fourth part to scale the PHP web application for new traffic.
Create the HPA for Guestbook
Now, create a new HPA spec file for the guestbook.
--- apiVersion: autoscaling/v1 kind: HorizontalPodAutoscaler metadata: name: guestbook-frontend namespace: guestbook labels: app: guestbook env: production tier: frontend spec: scaleTargetRef: apiVersion: apps/v1beta1 kind: Deployment name: guestbook-frontend minReplicas: 2 maxReplicas: 10 targetCPUUtilizationPercentage: 75
Put this into a file and create the HPA with
$ kubectl apply --record -f guestbook-frontend-hpa.yaml
Now, the Horizontal Pod Autoscaler is operational and monitoring the CPU utilization of your deployment.
Load test with Siege
To force the HPA into action, we’ll use Siege, an HTTP load testing and benchmark utility. Siege is a multi-threaded load testing tool and has a few other capabilities included to make it a good option for putting some force onto a simple web app.
First, put various permutations of the URL in a plaintext file. By doing this, Siege can randomly scan the URLs in he text file and ping them in “Internet mode” by randomly selecting a URL from the list for each request. This could look like the following…
http://my-guestbook.example.com/ http://my-guestbook.example.com/index.html http://my-guestbook.example.com/guestbook.php http://my-guestbook.example.com/guestbook.php?cmd=get&key=messages
Once this is done, you can fire up Siege to begin load testing. In this case, to get fast results, we’ll use 255 concurrent users for five minutes, using Internet and benchmark modes.
$ siege --verbose --benchmark --internet --concurrent 255 --time 10M --file siege-urls.txt
You should see Siege begin to rapidly send requests to your Guestbook application. Now that the action is in progress, you can slowly observe your CPU utilization begin to climb. Watch it slowly change by using
$ watch -d -n 2 -b -c kubectl get hpa -l app=guestbook
During the five minute load test, you should notice CPU usage rise and then new replicas will appear. Depending on what your original requests and limits are for the deployment, you will see different results. Next, try setting the deployment’s requests / limits to lower values if nothing seems to happen while testing.
Learn more about Horizontal Pod Autoscaler
Horizontal Pod Autoscalers are a stable resource in Kubernetes and are available for you to begin playing around with now. To learn more, read the documentation or see another example in the official walkthrough.